Learn the Knowledge of London
London's taxi service is the best in the world, in part because our cab drivers know the quickest routes through London's complicated road network. There are thousands of streets and landmarks within a six mile radius of Charing Cross. Anyone who wants to drive an iconic London cab must memorize them all: the Knowledge of London.
The Knowledge was introduced as a requirement for taxi drivers in 1865.
Mastering the Knowledge typically takes students three to four years; it's a challenge, but plenty of help and support is available if you are determined.
As a taxi driver, you can choose when and where you work and how much you earn. Do you have the pride and passion it takes to become a London cabbie?
Our Knowledge of London prospectus tells you how you can become a London taxi driver.
Learning the Knowledge
There are two different types of London taxi drivers:
- All London (green badge) - Drivers can ply for hire anywhere in the Greater London Authority area
- Suburban (yellow badge) - Drivers can ply for hire in one of the nine sectors in the suburbs of the Greater London Authority area
Whichever licence you choose to apply for, you will have to accumulate an encyclopedic knowledge of the streets and places of interest in that area. This will prove you can navigate your way around the Capital.
To become a London taxi driver you need to send us an application. Find out about applying for a taxi driver licence.
Following satisfactory character and medical checks, you will be sent a Knowledge of London introductory pack.
In this pack you will be given:
- A copy of the guide to learning the Knowledge of London (the Blue Book)
- A booklet of advice on how to learn the Knowledge and how you will be assessed
The Blue Book lists 320 routes (known as "runs") within the six mile radius of Charing Cross. You will need to learn these routes, plus all the roads and landmarks within a quarter mile radius of the start and end points of each route.
Knowledge of London Initial talk
You will be invited to attend an initial talk with other successful candidates. Here you will receive advice from a Knowledge of London examiner about the different stages of the Knowledge and the best way to approach your studies.
The Knowledge is done in seven stages, which are outlined here.
Stage 1: Self assessment
To check you're on the right track, within six months of starting you can take the self-assessment, which is based on the first 80 runs in the Blue Book. Taking the self-assessment is optional and no record of the result is made.
Stage 2: Written examination
When you are ready, you will sit the written examination. You will be tested on your knowledge of the Blue Book runs (five questions) and the major landmarks ("points") along the way (25 questions). This is a multiple choice test and the pass mark is 60%. This test must be undertaken within two years of being sent your introductory pack.
Stages 3-5: Appearances
You will then attend a series of one-to-one oral "appearances" with an examiner. Each appearance usually consists of four questions about the shortest route between any two points in London. An appearance takes about 20 minutes, and you'll get a score from A-D.
Depending on your score you will accumulate points; when you have enough you will progress to the next stage, when appearances will become more frequent. However, if you get too many Ds, you may be put back to a previous stage.
At Stage 3, appearances are about 56 days apart, at Stage 4 they are about 28 days apart, and at Stage 5 they are about 21 days apart. On average you will have to score on four appearances to accumulate enough points to progress to the next stage.
Stage 6: Suburban examination
You will need to demonstrate a good working knowledge of London's suburbs by learning an additional 25 routes.
Stage 7: Licence application and pre-licensing talk
Well done! You can make the final application for the issue of your licence. You will then join a group of other successful candidates to receive advice about your responsibilities as a taxi driver from a Knowledge of London examiner. You will also be given your badge and licence at the talk.
Download a detailed description of the Knowledge test.
Using a scooter
Most people who apply to become a licensed taxi driver and take the Knowledge of London exam use a scooter to help learn the runs.
You may want to attend one of several Knowledge schools to help you study for appearances. These are independent schools that are not controlled or regulated by Transport for London.
E4 Knowledge School
Open: Fridays 14.00 - 17.00 Contact: Tom Quigley
Address: Nuffield Gym Chingford New Road Chingford E4 9EY
About: Run by green badge drivers, Knowledge Companion aims to improve your visual Knowledge of London - critical to getting you to the level where you can "see" your way around London at the speed and quality the examiners need to recognise. We do this by providing a library of on-line videos, a library of 17,000 photographed and analysed points, and a systematic appearance question sheet that helps you start covering the detail of London from your first day starting out on the Knowledge. We use a system of simple low-cost weekly and monthly subscriptions with no hidden charges.
Phone: 07915 231 669
Knowledge Point School
Open: Monday to Friday 10:00-17.00
About: Established in 1985, Knowledge Point is London's most central and well established Knowledge school. We are placed between Kings Cross and Caledonian Road Station. We have online classes and facilities to accommodate all levels of Knowledge students and our teachers are not only qualified taxi drivers but qualified teachers also.
Twitter: @taxitradepro / Facebook: Knowledge Point School Limited
Phone: 020 7700 3999,
Address: Knowledge Point Central, 39-41 Brewery Road (1st Floor London Taxi Company headquarters), Islington, London N7 9QH
Online Classes: https://www.taxitradepromotions.co.uk/kplive
The London Knowledge School
Open: Monday to Friday 08:00 to 20:00 with extended hours Tuesday to Thursday until 22:00.
About: The London Knowledge School is an extremely encouraging, friendly, welcoming, inclusive school to learn the Knowledge of London. We are based in Grays, Essex near the A13 and M25.
Phone: 01375 371 247
Address: Lawrence Trading Estate, Askew Farm Road, Grays, Essex RM17 5XE
Open: For study 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Reception is open Monday to Thursday 10:30 -14.00.
About: WizAnn Knowledge school offers classes, apps and study materials at all levels. We provide quiet study facilities for all levels in a modern, clean environment. Our introductory seminar for beginners is available on YouTube.
Phone: 07740 753488 /020 3289 9114
Address: unit 2a, 16 Blount Street, London E14 7BZ
Contact the Knowledge department
If you have any special needs or learning difficulties such as dyslexia please contact the Knowledge department to ensure that you receive reasonable adjustments at your appearances. You will be required to send proof to ensure appropriate adjustments are made.
If at any time during the examination process you have a complaint or a query you should contact us. All complaints and appeals are treated in confidence and will not have any adverse effect on your progress through the examination system.
While studying the Knowledge you are obliged to notify us of any changes in your status, such as the following:
- Change of name and address
- Any cautions, convictions or charges
- Further information such as Driving Standards Agency Certificate
How to contact us:
- Email: TPHKnowledge@tfl.gov.uk