TPH journey-related sexual offences
The safety of passengers using taxis and private hire vehicles (commonly known as minicabs) continues to be a priority for us and our policing partners. Passengers should expect to be safe - and feel safe - when travelling by taxi or private hire and no one should ever be subject to any form or sexual behaviour from a driver.
Measures we take to ensure safety
With more than 105,000 licensed private hire drivers and around 20,000 licensed taxi drivers in London, millions of taxi and private hire journeys are made every year. The vast majority pass without incident, but we work with our partners in the police to crackdown on the minority of drivers who offend and put passenger safety at risk.
Joint TfL/Police guidance has been issued to all private hire operators on reporting alleged or suspected criminal conduct to the police in an appropriate and timely way.
We have implemented a range of measures to enhance public safety, including:
Police and TfL enforcement activity
- Regular checks by TfL compliance officers on licensed operators, drivers and vehicles to identify non-compliant or illegal activity
- Targeted plain clothes operations to deter and detect offenders
- High visibility operations to deter offenders, for example Operation Safer Travel at Night
- Police and TfL investigations of all allegations, whether reported directly, through social media, customer complaints, operators or via a third party
- Processes for the police to notify us of allegations and investigations of offences reported to the police where the suspect is a licensed driver
Licensing and regulatory action
- Enhanced Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) checks on all drivers and applicants when they apply for or renew a licence
- TfL licensing action against licensees where appropriate
- Regulatory requirement that all private hire operators provide their customers with a booking confirmation which could be by text message, app, email or, if customers are in the booking office, paper receipt. The booking confirmation must contain as minimum the vehicle registration, name of the driver and private hire licence number - a photo of the driver will also be provided where possible
- Dedicated TfL Taxi and Private Hire customer complaints process, to encourage reporting of inappropriate driver conduct so appropriate action can be taken by us and/or the police
- Implementation of the Department for Transport's statutory standards where appropriate
- Consultation on the proposal to make CCTV mandatory in all London licensed taxi and private hire vehicles (vehicle owners can already choose to install CCTV).
- Safer Travel communications
- Encouraging women to report unwanted sexual behaviour to TfL and the police
On this page you will find data and information about sexual offences committed by taxi and private hire drivers against fare-paying passengers reported to the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police in 2019.
While these statistics relate to sexual assault, we and the Metropolitan Police encourage people to report any unwanted sexual behaviour - behaviour doesn't have to be as severe as that listed here to be reportable.
Explanation of the data
Recorded crime figures
The figures in the table below are official figures based on police recorded crime data and verified against TfL's Taxi and Private Hire Licensing database.
The figures in Table 1 show the annual number of sexual offences recorded by the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) and City of London Police (CoLP) since 2002. The MPS and CoLP are responsible for investigating crimes that have been committed in London. In line with Home Office crime counting rules, the figures relate to crime recorded by the police during that year, regardless of when the offence took place.
Offences that are committed outside of London by London licensed drivers are investigated by the local police force for that area. These offences are not included in the figures below. We take licensing action when notified of a sexual offence by a London licensed driver, regardless of which police force notifies us.
The figures are for sexual offences committed by a licensed taxi or private hire driver and by 'bogus' drivers posing as taxi or private hire drivers against a fare-paying passenger that have taken place in London.
Sexual offences include offences such as rape, assault by penetration, sexual assault, exposure and administering a substance with the intent of engaging in non-consensual sexual activity. The figures are broken down into rape and 'other sexual offences' which are the MPS sub-categories for sexual offences. Most 'other sexual offences' are sexual assaults, which can include offences such as:
- Intentional sexual touching of another person without their consent
- A driver attempting to kiss or grope a passenger
- A driver grabbing a passenger's hand to kiss it
Offences recorded by the police in 2019 that resulted in a charge are outlined in Table 2.
These figures were correct at the time of publication and may be subject to change. Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offences data is updated and published annually.
Guidance on the reporting of alleged or suspected criminal activity
There are various ways the police can be notified of an allegation of a driver committing a sexual offence against a fare-paying passenger. The most common ways include:
- The victim reporting the offence directly to the police
- A friend or family member reporting it to the police on their behalf
- The victim or friend/family member reporting it to us or the private hire operator, who then reports it to the police.
In late 2017, we, along with the MPS, issued joint guidance to all Private Hire Operators on reporting alleged or suspected criminal conduct to the police in an appropriate and timely way.
We recognise that operators may receive notification of a potential crime as a complaint. This may come from a passenger using their services, a driver or another member of the public. It is important that all reports of a potential crime are passed to the police immediately to ensure that they can investigate the incidents effectively and efficiently.
This guidance has resulted in more allegations being reported to the police which explains the significant increases in recorded offences for 2018 onwards.
2019 recorded crime figures
Table 1: Recorded crime figures for Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offences 2002-2019
|Year||Rape||Other sexual offence||Total|
Not all of the offences reported in Table 1 will have resulted in a driver being charged with an offence. This could be for various reasons, including the driver not being traced and identified, the victim not supporting the police investigation or prosecution, insufficient evidence to charge a suspect, the Crown Prosecution Service deciding there is no reasonable chance of conviction or that it is not in the public interest to prosecute.
We are considering options that would help address this such as mandating CCTV in private hire vehicles. Our partnership with the police to improve the safety of women and girls on public transport continues.
Building on the success of Project Guardian and the 'Report it to stop it' campaign, we are working with the the British Transport Police (BTP), academics and sexual violence advocacy groups on a national approach to addressing sexual offending and harassment on the network. Working with the Metropolitan Police Roads and Transport Policing Command (RTPC) we will look at whether this approach is appropriate for taxi and private hire vehicles.
Some offences reported in Table 1 are unbooked or the taxis and the drivers cannot be traced. The police are more likely to be able to trace and take action against a driver when they are licensed and the journey is booked through a licensed operator as there will be a record of the journey and the driver.
In most cases, the police and the Crown Prosecution Service will require the victim's consent and cooperation in the police investigation to bring charges against the suspect. In cases where the victim decides not to support the police investigation, the police will use any information they have obtained for investigative and intelligence purposes. As the licensing authority, we can still take licensing action against a driver even if police or judicial action is not possible.
Information about the location, time of offence and any details about the suspect/s involved are used by the MPS, CoLP and TfL for intelligence-led enforcement and investigation.
Breakdown of drivers charged by licence status and journey type
We have worked with the MPS and CoLP to provide information about the licence status and journey type for all drivers who have been charged with a Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offence, recorded in the 2019 calendar year.
A driver will be charged when the MPS or CoLP determines:
- There is enough evidence for the case to go before the Court
- The victim supports the police investigation and criminal justice process or there is sufficient evidence without the victim's cooperation and support for the prosecution
The Crown Prosecution Service must also decide that there is a reasonable chance of a conviction and that it is in the public interest to charge the suspect with a sexual offence.
The total number of drivers charged with a Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offence recorded in 2019 is shown in Table 2 below.
In 2019, 20 individual drivers were charged for 21 offences. One driver was charged with two offences. Four individuals were unlicensed drivers impersonating a PHV driver (bogus minicab).
Table 2: 2019 - Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offences where a driver has been charged.
These figures relate to crimes recorded by the police in 2019.
|Journey Type||Driver's TfL licence status at time of offence||Total offences by driver and journey type||Rape||Other sexual offences||Court outcome|
|Not booked||Unlicensed driver||2||2||0||Awaiting trial|
|Not booked||Unlicensed driver||2||1||1||Convicted|
|Not booked||Licensed Private Hire driver||1||1||0||Awaiting trial|
|Booked via operator||Licensed Private Hire driver||6||0||6||Convicted|
|Booked via operator||Licensed Private Hire driver||4||0||4||Not guilty|
|Booked via operator||Licensed Private Hire driver||5||0||5||Awaiting trial|
|Taxi||Licensed Taxi driver||1||0||1||Not guilty|
*involving 20 individual drivers
Action against offenders
Where the suspect is a TfL-licensed taxi or private hire driver, and we are notified by the police of an allegation, we immediately assess whether there is a risk to public safety. We may immediately suspend or revoke the driver's licence prior to charge or conviction, if we believe that is in the interests of public safety. In some cases, we may take licensing action immediately, irrespective of the results of the police investigation and subsequent court proceedings.
Of the 20 drivers charged with one or more offences, 16 of these were TfL-licensed drivers at the time of the offence. These 16 licensed drivers were charged with 17 offences between them.
Fifteen were licensed private hire drivers at the time of the offence (including booked and unbooked journeys) and one was a licensed taxi driver.
Of the 15 licensed private hire drivers:
- Five were convicted and no longer hold an active private hire licence.
- Six are awaiting court outcomes, none of which hold an active private hire licence.
- Four were found not guilty, three of these drivers no longer hold a licence in London
- One driver remains licensed
The licensed taxi driver was found not guilty of a sexual offence. This driver no longer holds a taxi driver licence in London.
Private hire operators
The information in this section relates to offences where the journey was booked through a licensed private hire operator.
The private hire operators that have had one or more of their drivers charged with a Taxi and Private Hire-journey related sexual offence are listed in Table 3 below.
Table 3: 2019 - Breakdown of Private Hire Operators which have had one or more drivers charged with a Taxi and Private Hire-journey related sexual offence
- There were 14 individual drivers charged for 15 offences relating to a booked journey. One driver was charged with two offences on two separate occasions
- Four drivers were found not guilty at court
- Five drivers are awaiting trial
- Five drivers were convicted
The operator names listed in the table below are based on information recorded by the Metropolitan Police Service as part of their investigation of a Taxi and Private Hire-journey related sexual offence.
|Operator licence number||Awaiting court hearing or outcome||Convicted||Not guilty||Total number of offences||Total number of drivers|
|Bolt Services UK Limited/
Bolt Operations UK Limited
|Hyde Park Cars Limited/
Hyde Park Cars Limited
|Rosehill Cars Ltd/
Rosehill Cars Ltd
Uber London Ltd/
|Via Transportation UK Ltd/
|Total number of offences||-||5||6||4||15||-|
|Total number of drivers||-||-||-||-||-||14|
Check before you get in
We have made it a requirement that all private hire operators have to give passengers a booking confirmation before their journey starts. All operators must (at a minimum) be able to confirm booking via email, text (SMS and MMS) message and phone (regardless of what booking channels the operator offers). The confirmation can also be provided via an operator's app or - if in a minicab office - as a paper receipt.
The booking confirmation must provide details of the licensed private hire driver (name and private hire licence number) and the registration of the vehicle that has been allocated to the passenger. A photograph of the driver must also be provided if the passenger can receive it.
If you have booked a private hire vehicle, please check your booking confirmation before entering the vehicle. If any of the details in your confirmation do not match the driver or vehicle details do not get in the vehicle and report this to 0343 222 4000 (TfL call charges).
Report an incident
Thousands of taxi and minicab journeys are taken every day, most without incident. If you experience any behaviour of a sexual nature from a taxi or private hire (minicab) driver, including if they comment on your appearance or look at you in a way that makes you feel uncomfortable, please report it. You will always be taken seriously.
Report a sexual offence such as groping, indecent acts or driver behaviour that feels threatening or intimidating to the police by dialling 999 if it is an emergency. Otherwise call 101 or use the Metropolitan Police Service online reporting tool.
You can also report any inappropriate driver behaviour such as comments that make you feel uncomfortable to TfL by calling 0343 222 4000 (Monday-Friday, 08:00-18:00) (TfL call charges) or by emailing TPHintel@tfl.gov.uk. We take these reports seriously and will investigate all complaints against TfL-licensed Taxi and Private Hire drivers.
Make a complaint
You can also make a complaint about a driver's behaviour or any other aspect of the journey to the Private Hire Operator you booked through. Private Hire Operators are required to make a person available for passengers to speak to at all times during operating hours and when a journey is being undertaken in the event that a passenger wants to make a complaint or discuss any other matter about how a booking was carried out.
You can also make a complaint to TfL online.
Private Hire Operators have been asked to notify the police immediately of any complaints or reports they receive that they consider to be an alleged or suspected crime so they can be fully investigated.
Figures for previous years
2018 - Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offences where a driver has been charged
2017 - Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offences where a driver has been charged
2016 - Taxi and Private Hire journey-related sexual offences where a driver has been charged
2015 - Taxi and Private hire journey-related sexual offences where a driver has been charged
2014 - Taxi and Private hire journey-related sexual offences where a driver has been charged