Ultra Low Emission Zone

More information on the ULEZ can be found in the ULEZ leaflet.

Supporting evidence

We relied on evidence from several sources when developing proposals to create the ULEZ.

Air pollution is one of the most significant challenges facing London, affecting the health of all Londoners. Every child in London breathes toxic air daily, damaging their lung growth. Road transport is the biggest source of the emissions damaging health in London.

Around half of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which contribute to illegal levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM) come from transport. These pollutants make chronic illnesses worse, shorten life expectancy and can damage lung development.

The communities suffering most from poor air quality are often the most vulnerable, including the children of London. At least 360 primary schools are in areas exceeding safe legal pollution levels.

To help improve the air we breathe we're introducing measures to promote more walking, cycling, use of public transport and to encourage sustainable freight deliveries.

Evidence for this view comes from:

Number of children in London breathing in toxic air daily
Reference: London Datastore, Greater London Authority
GLA Population Projections - Custom Age Tables
PM2.5 map and exposure data

Health impact assessment of air pollution on asthma in London
Imperial College London report 2022

Road transport as biggest source of health-damaging emissions
Reference: London Datastore, Greater London Authority
London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2019
London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) 2013

Air pollution and inequalities
2019 update report 

Lung growth in children
Reference: Royal College of Physicians, 2017
Every breath we take: the lifelong impact of air pollution

Improving the air we breathe
Reference: ULEZ consultation (April-June 2017), TfL

ULEZ consultation on taxis and PHVs - July 2015

Finance, operations & performance

Ultra Low Emission Zone factsheets

These factsheets include information about how many people pay the Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) charge, the compliance rates for vehicles using the zone and the number of Penalty Charge Notices that are issued.

Scrappage scheme factsheet

This factsheet includes information about how many people have applied for the London-wide ULEZ scrappage scheme, how many have been approved and the value of funds that have been committed since the scheme launched on 30 January 2023.

Related documents

National vehicle scrappage fund

A proposal for the government to creative a national vehicle scrappage fund, which can be accessed by cities that implement Clean Air Zones.