Cycling & walking

Low Traffic Neighbourhoods evidence summary (2023)

A summary of the available evidence on the impacts of Low Traffic Neighbourhoods (LTNs) in London. This document details key findings from independent research and analysis.

It draws from studies that focus on the majority of new LTNs installed in London since 2020, and those that take an in-depth look at the impacts of LTNs in a single borough, often over a longer period. The findings show that LTNs are making streets safer by lowering traffic levels, as well as enabling people to walk and cycle more, and reducing street crime.

School Streets qualitative research (2022)

Borough officers, school staff, volunteers and parents/carers from five School Streets took part in qualitative interviews to understand their experiences and perceptions of delivering, operating and using the School Street.

The research consists of a deep dive into the findings of the qualitative interviews and an in-depth case study of each School Street including a description, photographs and quantitative findings of the pedestrian and vehicle activity. 

The research found that School Streets are seen as a positive step towards safer, calmer and more healthy local areas, with benefits such as a growing sense of neighbourhood. A reduction in the number and speeds of vehicles travelling through the School Streets compared to outside of the closure time was captured along with an increase in the number of people cycling per hour. 

School Streets reported to be delivered across London as of 10 March 2022

Over 500 School Streets have been delivered in all but two boroughs across London.

School Streets evaluation (2021)

Nearly 350 School Streets were created in London between March 2020 and March 2021 to promote walking and cycling to school as well as to provide space for social distancing during the coronavirus pandemic.

Parents/carers from 35 schools across London (with and without School Streets), took part in a survey to explore awareness, attitudes and any changes to travel behaviour as a result of the School Streets.

The research found that support for School Streets was high at schools with and without School Streets. Both School Streets and the coronavirus pandemic encouraged fewer car journeys to school and more walking and cycling. Also, parents/carers from schools with School Streets reported higher satisfaction with the environment outside the school, greater ease and safety of active travel, and reduced concern about air quality compared to parents/carers from control schools.

Cycling potential in London's diverse communities (2021)

This research outlines current participation in cycling with a focus on minority groups. It found that people cycling in 2020 were more representative of Londoners than in previous years and highlights the potential for growth in cycling in under-represented groups. The research also assesses the barriers faced by these groups and potential motivators.

Active people qualitative research (2019)

The Mayor's Transport Strategy target is for all Londoners to achieve 20 minutes of active travel a day by 2041, the recommended amount for good health.

In this qualitative study, 46 Londoners who were not meeting the target were challenged to incorporate 20 minutes of active travel into their daily journeys. Participants were selected from three areas where the four 'near market' TCoL segments live (based on propensity and potential for active travel).

Once this change was triggered, many of the perceived barriers disappeared and respondents reported experiencing personal and social benefits. Many voiced commitment to integrating active travel into their regular trips in future.

Mini-Hollands People and Places longitudinal study (2016-2021)

The Mini-Hollands programme was implemented between 2016 and 2020 and brought a range of initiatives to encourage walking, cycling, public transport use and the reduction in car use to three outer London boroughs: Enfield, Waltham Forest and Kingston upon Thames.

Between 2016 and 2021, an annual longitudinal survey of outer London residents was conducted to understand the long-term impacts of this programme on travel behaviour and attitudes to the local area among outer London residents. This final report summarises the results of all survey waves and highlights its main conclusions.

Healthy Streets

To measure the performance of streets on Healthy Streets indicators. Based on this, to provide a cluster solution grouping the nine street types, identify which indicators are most likely to drive overall satisfaction with the street environment and develop guidelines for a 'good' performance. 

Start Your Journey (SYJ) Zcard resource

To identify how the resource is being used in schools, and to identify strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement to support its future delivery. 

RideLondon travel demand management campaign

To assess the effectiveness of a communication campaign designed to raise awareness of the potential impact on local residents of the RideLondon cycling events which took place over the weekend of 1-2 August 2015. The research gauged recognition of the campaign; awareness of and attitudes towards the events; and intended and actual behaviours.

TfL walking strategy for secondary schools

To explore why levels of walking in secondary schools are so low and what our strategy should be to increase walking to school for secondary school pupils across London.

Adult cycle training monitor 2014/15

To measure impact of adult cycle training across London boroughs, specifically exploring over time whether there has been a change in behaviour, feelings of confidence and safety.  

Prudential RideLondon 2015 evaluation

To assess the impact of Prudential RideLondon on participants and spectators.

Vauxhall northern pedestrian tunnel evaluation

To benchmark user experience of using the northern pedestrian tunnel at Vauxhall Cross ahead of infrastructure works.

Nursery group analysis

To better understand the 'nursery group' of cycle hire members and their experiences in the early days of being a member.

Barclays Cycle Hire survey

Attitudes towards cycling 2016

Londoners' cycling behaviour and attitudes towards cycle use (September 2016)

Summary (PDF 8KB)
Full report (PDF 2MB)

Attitudes towards cycling 2015

Londoners' cycling behaviour and attitudes towards cycle use (September 2015) 

Summary (PDF 0.03MB)
Full report (PDF 1MB)

Cycle Hire casual users

A report giving a profile of casual users, and comparison with member profile. Also, how casual users use the Cycle Hire scheme and their satisfaction with the scheme including likes and dislikes (February 2015)

Full report (PDF 1.09MB)

Walking maps

The impact of bus stop letter points on walking maps (July 2012)

Summary (PDF 0.03MB)
Full report (PDF 0.43MB)

Attitudes towards walking 2014

Measures perception of, and attitudes towards walking (May 2014)

Summary (PDF 3.16KB)
Full report (PDF 2.76KB)

Attitudes towards cycling 2014

Londoners cycling behaviour and attitudes towards use of the mode (November 2014)

Summary (PDF 1.35KB)
Full report (PDF 4.61KB)

Attitudes towards walking 2012

Londoners' frequency of walking, their attitudes towards increasing the amount they walk, and the motivators and barriers they face (April 2012)

Summary (PDF 0.04MB)
Full report (PDF 0.63MB)

Attitudes towards cycling 2012

Londoners' cycling behaviour and attitudes towards use of the mode (March 2012)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 1.22MB)

Barclays Cycle Hire membership

Profile of BCH members - includes demographics (March 2012)

Summary (PDF 0.07MB)
Full report (PDF 0.70MB)

Waterloo congestion relief pilot

To lead a revolution in cycling and walking in London (October 2011)

Summary (PDF 0.01MB)
Full report (PDF 1.02MB)

Attitudes towards walking 2011

Measure perceptions of, and attitudes towards, walking in London (April 2011)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.51MB)

Attitudes towards cycling 2011

Annual survey to measure perceptions of, and attitudes towards, cycling in London (April 2011)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 1.00MB)

Exploring the market for walking

Understand what would be the most effective measures to persuade and/or encourage people to walk more short trips (April 2011)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 2.89MB)

London cycling safety code

How a London cycling safety code/tips may be of benefit to London's cyclists and encourage them to ride more safely (December 2010)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 1.90MB)

Olympic walking and cycling routes

User behaviour and views of the routes so that developments can be tailored appropriately and improvements evaluated (October 2010)

Summary (PDF 0.04MB)
Full report (PDF 1.23MB)

Tour of Britain 2010

Evaluate awareness of the 2010 Tour of Britain and perceptions among those who attended the London leg of the event (October 2010)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.40MB)

Legible London scheme in new areas

Measure the impact of Legible London in the three pilot areas of Southbank, Clearzones and Richmond & Twickenham (September 2010)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 4.29MB)

Cycle Hire 2010

Development of two creative routes and a leaflet for the Cycle Hire scheme (March 2010)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 2.46MB)

Intelligent speed adaption design

Drivers' and managers' experiences of using ISA systems in council vehicles (December 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.33MB)

Cycle Superhighways impact

Route users' perceptions and preferences from two alternative designs of road markings to highlight the Cycle Superhighway in bus lanes (December 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.03MB)
Full report (PDF 1.69MB)

Cycle safety

Exploration of how well the proposed creative ideas communicate that road users should look out for cyclists (November 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.67MB)

Tour of Britain 2009

Awareness of the 2009 Tour of Britain and perceptions among those who attended the London leg of the event (October 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.20MB)

Cycle Superhighways brand

Testing of options for naming and branding the Cycle Superhighways, to understand which will make them most recognisable, distinguishable and convey the right impression of them to potential users (July 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 1.27MB)

Walking - exploratory research

Detailed exploration of attitudes to walking (April 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 1.96MB)

Cycling tipping points

Triggers, how new cyclists prepare themselves and how they overcome their barriers to start cycling (April 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.03MB)
Full report (PDF 1.84MB)

Development of cycle highways

Evaluation of the Mayor's plan to encourage cycling by clearly marking out cycling routes into central London (February 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.03MB)
Full report (PDF 0.29MB)

Motivating the market about cycling

Barriers and motivators for cycling amongst the near market and reactions to propositions and interventions (February 2009)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.86MB)

Wimbledon walk to school

Options to dissuade girls from two schools in Wimbledon congregating around the town centre bus stops before and after school (December 2008)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.42MB)

Tour of Britain 2008 evaluation

Awareness of the London stage of the Tour of Britain pre and post marketing of the event (October 2008)

Summary (PDF 0.02MB)
Full report (PDF 0.12MB)

Research into what our customers think and how they behave helps us identify their key issues, areas for improvement and allows us to seek their views on new initiatives to inform our decision making.

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