Movement to, from and through the interchange zone must be considered, by all modes including, for example, vehicles using the surrounding road network. Access to the interchange facilities and movement within the interchange zone will be improved through careful design of the local built environment recognising the needs of all users.

Are patterns of movement understood?

It is important to understand patterns of movement within the wider interchange zone and between it and the surrounding area in order to properly plan and design access routes. Movement patterns of passengers are important, but so are movement of others using the interchange zone including local residents and through traffic.

Understanding the origins and destinations of passengers and the nature of local land uses will assist in predicting how patterns of movement will change in the future. Consideration of the effects of the interchange enhancement itself is also relevant; for example improving the permeability of the area immediately surrounding the interchange zone for all feeder modes will increase access to the public transport networks.

Planners should consider how patterns of movement, including the types of passengers, vary across the day and week and how these may change in the future.

Have routes to and from the surrounding area been optimised?

Quantifying the scale of the movements to and from surrounding residential, employment, retail and leisure areas by feeder mode will assist in planning locations of entry/exit points to and from the interchange zone and placement and size of facilities such as cycle parking and taxi ranks, cycle hire and bike sharing opportunities. It will also inform decisions about enhancement of, and creation of new, pedestrian and cycle routes and the approach to minimising conflicts between access modes.

Where trade-offs between provision for different access modes are required, the number of people using each mode and route, and the specific requirements of each group, should be fully considered.

Are feeder mode facilities appropriate?

The number of cycle parking facilities provided should take account of existing and potential demand. They should be easy to use, located at high-profile points that meet with anticipated arrival points, do not impede pedestrian movement, signposted, low-maintenance, protected from weather, and secure.

Opportunities for the provision of cycle hire/bike sharing facilities should also be considered in conjunction with TfL. Please contact us in order to assess the suitability and feasibility of such facilities at specific interchanges.

At large interchange zones, electronically controlled cycle parking, cycle lockers, staffed cycle parks, and cycle repair may be appropriate. Our travel plan guidance contains standards for cycle parking at interchange facilities of a specified size.

Other than for disabled people, provision for car parking at interchange facilities should be minimised, unless identified as a designated park and ride location. Parking should not be provided where it encourages unnecessary 'rail heading' or encourages passengers to switch from more sustainable modes. However, 'kiss and ride' is an important feeder mode, especially in outer London, and this should be properly catered for.

"Passengers should be protected"

Taxi ranks and minicab offices should be sited in safe, accessible, well lit, and well signed locations which are convenient to passengers. The location of taxi ranks should be clearly identified by the prescribed road markings and additional signage. Taxi ranks should be designed so that the system of taxi flows and picking up and setting down points is clearly understood as well as being expeditious to local traffic flow. Passengers waiting for taxis and minicabs should be protected from the weather.

Dial-a-Ride and community transport facilities should also be provided and, like kiss and ride facilities, be located so as to minimise conflict with core public transport operations and pedestrian movements. However, they must be located conveniently for those with mobility impairments to avoid vehicle drop-off occurring in more convenient, but unofficial, locations.

Layover space for buses and coaches may, where appropriate, be provided in interchange zones. Adequate standing and layover space is necessary to support reliability. Provision of the optimum bus network requires that layover space is at, or very close to, terminus points and decisions over size and location of layover should be agreed with TfL Surface.

Decisions about the location of taxi ranks, drop-off areas, bus stops and layover spaces should have full regard for the operation of the surrounding road network and the movement/access needs of all passengers.

Is the interchange zone well connected with external facilities?

An interchange zone should be clearly signposted to and from major destinations outside the interchange zone to highlight its location for pedestrians, cyclists, and motor traffic. TfL Interchange Sign Design Guidelines set out signing requirements to indicate the different modes available at any given interchange facility and National Rail has its own well-known signifier. These symbols should be on display at each entrance outside the interchange facility or zone.

If the main access route to the interchange facility is via a shopping centre, such as at Stratford, negotiations with the commercial owners must take place so that sign posting to the interchange facility is arranged and kept updated. Equally, information about external facilities needs to be displayed within the zone, with signing and wayfinding to specific locations. These may be negotiated with and sponsored by facilities providers.

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