London's black cabs are one of the city's most distinctive and comfortable forms of transport. The vehicles are subject to strict regulation, are wheelchair accessible, and have the ability to 'turn on a sixpence'. Drivers have to pass rigorous Knowledge of London examinations before they can pick up their first passenger. This involves memorising thousands of streets, routes and places of interest. Although known as black cabs, they come in a variety of colours. You can hail one of the capital's 22,000 taxis in the street, book by phone or app, or pick one up at hundreds of taxi ranks.
2/100: Frank Pick
Frank Pick joined the Underground in 1906, and served in a variety of roles, including Commercial Manager and Chief Executive, through which he set the benchmark for good design in a transport system. Pick cultivated a network of artists and designers who together changed the face of transport in London. He believed that good design could bring order, style and efficiency, and even a spiritual dimension, to an organisation. The roundel, Johnston font, modern publicity and posters, and Charles Holden stations are evidence of his approach. No other modern design programme has had such effective and comprehensive results as Pick's 30-plus years of ground-breaking work for the Underground and London Transport.
3/100: Harry Beck's original Tube map
The London Underground map is arguably the most famous map in the world. It was first devised in 1931 by Henry Beck (known as Harry), a draughtsman who worked for the Underground. His diagrammatic map represented a radical departure from the geographic style of previous maps. Combining functionality with a beautiful simplicity, it is recognised as a landmark achievement in the history of design.
4/100: Baker Street
Designed by Chief Engineer Sir John Fowler, Baker Street was one of only three of the original Metropolitan Railway stations to have subterranean platforms. The dim platform lighting and steam-filled air were partly alleviated by the incorporation of skylights doubling as ventilation shafts. Modified over time, in the 1980s the platforms were restored to their Victorian appearance by stripping the walls back to the original brickwork, exposing the ventilation recesses, and installing replica period furniture and lighting.
5/100: The Roundel
The roundel, or bullseye as it used to be called, is one of the most recognised and familiar elements of Transport for London's corporate identity. First used by the Underground Group in 1908, it has since undergone many changes and been used in many different ways. It now represents all the transport modes in London, and even without any text, it is understood as the symbol of London's transport, and of London itself.
6/100: The Routemaster bus
Bill Durrant, London Transport's Chief Mechanical Engineer (Road Services), oversaw the team that developed the Routemaster. Every detail of the bus, inside and out, was beautifully designed. Douglas Scott was brought in as an external consultant to work on the body styling, including the front-end design, interior colour scheme and tartan moquette seating fabric. The Routemaster is still in service today on the 15H bus route.
To celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Tube, Art on the Underground commissioned Mark Wallinger, a leading UK artist, to create a new artwork. The result was a major multi-part work that is installed in every one of the Underground's 270 stations. Each artwork bears a unique circular labyrinth, but with a bold black, white and red graphic common to all. The circular labyrinth echoes the Tube's roundel logo, and the artworks are produced in vitreous enamel, a material commonly used for Underground signs.
8/100: RT Type bus
The RT type bus was designed in the 1930s, with some 151 buses being produced between 1939 and 1941. Improved design after WW2 saw mass production from 1947 until 1954, by which time nearly 7,000 buses had been built by AEC and Leyland, giving London Transport the world's largest standardised bus fleet. With beautifully styled bodywork, the RT is for many the definitive London bus, the result of 50 years of continuous research and development. The RT even stars in the 1963 film Summer Holiday, with Cliff Richard. The last RTs were withdrawn from service in London in 1979.
9/100: S stock train
The S stock - standing for 'subsurface' stock and manufactured by Bombardier in Derby, is based on a design originally developed for Movia in Copenhagen, but customised by London Underground. There are two variants with slightly different seating arrangements, designated S7 (seven-car trains) and S8 (eight-car trains, on the Metropolitan line only). Both types have air-conditioning and improved accessibility. New trains (191 in total) have been replacing older stock from the 1960s and 1970s on the Circle, District, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines since 2010.
10/100: Westminster station
Westminster station was the most complex project of the 11 Jubilee Line Extension (JLE) sites. It involved the complete reconstruction of the existing District line station which remained in service during works, and the construction of Portcullis House above, which opened in 2001. The design by Michael Hopkins and Partners, reveals and highlights the engineering aesthetics of the difficult site. Part of the solution was to construct a large escalator hall 39m (128ft) deep from surface to platform level. Filled with stacks of escalators and steel supports, it is a breathtaking space. The station design has won several awards, including the RIBA Award for Architecture in 2001.
11/100: Johnston typeface
Frank Pick commissioned the calligrapher Edward Johnston to design a clear, modern typeface for the Underground Group. The innovative result, introduced in 1916, was inspired by the proportions of classical Roman lettering, based on square and circular forms. Often referred to as 'London's handwriting', the Johnston typeface influenced the design of the whole London transport system. It is still seen every day, in an adapted form called New Johnston, by millions of passengers on signs, posters, leaflets and maps.
12/100: St John's Wood station escalator uplighters
St John's Wood station was designed by London Transport's Chief Architect Stanley Heaps, and opened in November 1939 as part of the Metropolitan line. The brass uplighters were similar to Charles Holden's designs on the Piccadilly line, although the escalator-mounted 'Way Out' sign is a rarity on the network. The station transferred from the Metropolitan line to the Bakerloo, and finally to the new Jubilee line in 1979, and was progressively refurbished in the 1990s.
13/100: Tottenham Court Road station mosaics
During the 1980s, London Transport refurbished many central London Underground stations. Artists and designers gave them a fresh look with a local theme. At Tottenham Court Road, leading British artist Sir Eduardo Paolozzi used mosaics throughout the station. The designs reference the vibrant local entertainment culture and consumer electronics trade, set next to industrial images of cogs, pistons and wheels. Paolozzi's mosaics are one of the most spectacular examples of post-war public art. Design and conservation specialists within London Underground have worked closely with the Paolozzi Foundation to protect and restore them.
14/100: Canary Wharf station exit, Jubilee line
One of the leading principles in the design of the Jubilee Line Extension (JLE) stations was to create a feeling of space. Designed by Foster + Partners, Canary Wharf station certainly achieves this. The huge semi-elliptical canopy above ground draws daylight deep into the concourse. A total of 20 escalators move passengers through all parts of the station. The palette of concrete, glass and metal used throughout the station achieves an austere and robust aesthetic, notably where concrete tunnel walls are left exposed.
15/100: 1938 Tube stock
In the 1930s London's Underground trains were the most advanced in the world. The 1938 Tube stock represented a ground-breaking design that set the basic style of Tube trains right up to the 1980s. It was unique to London, designed to maximise passenger accommodation by locating all the control equipment below the floor. The train fitted in the city's deep tunnels and the car interiors felt comfortable and spacious even in rush hour.
16/100: London Overground
In November 2007, the London Overground was formally launched as part of the TfL network, with its own orange and blue roundel. Stations and trains were refurbished and rebranded, and Oyster card readers installed. In April 2010 the former East London line was added. Visually, the Overground is associated with the Underground by the roundel and use of the New Johnston typeface. New trains had air-conditioning for the first time and featured a new moquette created by textile designers Wallace Sewell, incorporating the orange colour of the network. In 2016 the orbital network serves 112 stations and is used by over 140 million people annually.
17/100: Jubilee line extension
Construction of the Jubilee Line Extension (JLE) began in December 1993 and was completed in 1999. At the time, it was the largest public architectural commission in the UK since the Festival of Britain in 1951. In its architectural vision, as conceived by project architect Roland Paoletti, the JLE saw a return to the high standards of the 1930s. London Transport commissioned some of the world's best architects to deliver the JLE project. The stations all share the same high-quality finishes and use similar materials, notably steel panelling and exposed concrete, signage and colour.
18/100: New Routemaster bus
Heatherwick Studio collaborated with TfL and the manufacturers Wrightbus to produce a new bus for London to replace the much-loved 1950s Routemaster. The brief for the new bus was that it should work more efficiently and use 40 per cent less fuel than other buses. It was also intended that it would pay homage to the original Routemaster. The new design reintroduced the curves of the Routemaster, which creates an illusion that the bus is smaller in comparison to other modern double-decker buses.
19/100: Moquette seating fabric
Moquette is a woven woollen fabric that can be made in a range of patterns and colours. Durable, hard-wearing and fireproof, but comfortable to sit on, it is ideal for vehicle upholstery. It was first used as a public transport seating fabric in the 1920s. From 1937 London Transport commissioned its own designers to produce moquette patterns. The classic designs that followed were used on the Underground and surface transport for many decades. Today, fresh and distinctive moquette patterns continue to be designed for projects, including the New Routemaster and the New Tube for London.
20/100: Charing Cross station murals, Northern line
For its first century, the predominant decoration for Underground platforms was tiling. However, at the end of the 1970s, the Underground began experimenting with panelling along the platform. One of the first panelled stations was Charing Cross. On the Northern line, artist David Gentleman was commissioned to create black and white murals about the Eleanor Cross, a replica of which sits in the forecourt of the Network Rail station above. The murals depict the construction and journey of the medieval Eleanor Cross in 1291. Gentleman engraved the images on wood blocks that were then photographically enlarged and printed onto melamine sheets. Other platforms at Charing Cross station feature graphics referencing the nearby National Gallery and Trafalgar Square.
21/100: Oyster card reader
In 2003, TfL introduced the electronic smartcard ticketing system called Oyster; since then over 60 million cards have been issued, requiring a simple tap to open fare gates. Since 2014, passengers have been able to pay for journeys with 'contactless payment' by 'touching in' and 'touching out' on these readers with a bank card or even a phone. Oyster and contactless payment has revolutionised the way people travel around the capital. For most people in London, travel is now cashless. It saves time, allowing 40 people a minute to pass through ticket gates at stations. It also makes boarding a bus three times faster.
22/100: 'Push once' bus bell
A standardised functional object that attracts the eye, is pleasing to the touch and does its job perfectly, this bell was used on thousands of London buses over a period of at least 60 years. Although many variations are used on every bus in London in 2016, the traditional and classic 'Push once' design can be seen on RT and RM type buses at London Transport Museum.
23/100: Victoria line tile motifs
The Victoria line opened between 1968 and 1972. On 7 March 1969, Queen Elizabeth travelled on the line during its official opening. London Transport commissioned the Design Research Unit (DRU) to style the line, which had few surface buildings. The DRU incorporated art into the stations above and below ground. Well-known designers and artists produced individual tile panels to decorate seating niches. Designs were inspired by the station name or local area. For example, Edward Bawden's tiles for Highbury & Islington station feature a local castle destroyed in the 13th century. All stations still have the motifs.
24/100: Legible London wayfinding system
Legible London is an easy-to-use pedestrian signage system designed to help people find their way, and encourage walking in the capital. It presents maps and directional information. The first set of 19 street signs were installed in the Bond Street area of central London in 2007. Now there are over 1,500 maps and signs across the city, at all Tube and mainline rail stations, bus stops and Cycle Hire docking stations. The system was developed by AIG (Applied Information Group, now Applied Wayfinding) and TfL, working with London boroughs and business organisations.
25/100: Gibson ticket machine
This ingenious machine was named after its inventor, George Gibson, who was the manager of London Transport's ticket works at Brixton. The Gibson could be set to print any combination of ticket code and fare value on a single roll of paper. It replaced the Bell Punch system that had been used for 60 years, with its costly, individual pre-printed tickets. By accurately recording the value and number of tickets issued, the Gibson made fare collection accountable and prevented fraud. At its height, there were 15,000 Gibson machines in operation, consuming about 241,000km of paper every year, before being withdrawn in 1993.
26/100: Brightest London poster
In a city still recovering from WW1, vibrant posters like this one by Horace Taylor splashed colour into 1920s London. The Underground is presented as bright, popular and fashionable. At the time the poster was issued, the three escalators represented modernity. In reality, Bank was the only station boasting a triple escalator. Taylor often liked to paint himself into his posters. In this one, he is the bearded gentleman with the top hat on the right.
27/100: Tube stock hand-grabs
While early Tube trains were rarely crowded compared to peak times today, provision has always been made for standing passengers. Simple leather loops or straphangers, running along bars above seats, were used until the 1920s, when loops of harder material were introduced, followed by the simpler bulb-shaped 'hand-grabs' of the late 1930s. Modern train interiors have been designed to increase capacity by accommodating a higher proportion of standing passengers. Most hand-grabs have been replaced by simpler bars and posts, although loops are still used on some trains.
28/100: Thames Tunnel
Construction of the Thames Tunnel between Wapping and Rotherhithe began in 1825. The first underwater tunnel in the world, it was engineered by Marc Brunel and completed by his son, Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The 'Great Bore' took nearly 20 years to build, finally opening in 1843. The tunnel was designed for horse-drawn carriages, but never used for this purpose and became an increasingly seedy pedestrian tourist attraction, until converted to railway use in the 1860s by the East London Railway. Today it is part of the Overground network, and the oldest continually operational part of our system.
29/100: Southwark station's glass wall
Southwark station's magnificent blue curving wall was designed by Alexander Beleschenko and inspired by an 1816 stage set for the opera The Magic Flute. It was incorporated into the overall design of the station by MacCormac Jamieson Prichard. As one of the 11 Jubilee Line Extension (JLE) stations, Southwark continued the JLE palette of tough, resilient materials (concrete and steel) alongside the use of textured masonry and enamelled glass.
30/100: Docklands Light Railway (DLR)
The DLR opened in 1987 to revitalise the redeveloped Docklands area by providing good transport links with the rest of London, and its network has been extended several times since. DLR trains are driverless, although a passenger service agent is always on board to provide assistance. Originally, the train livery was blue and red with white detailing, designed by a competition-winning London student. The service originally used a new style of lettering called Rockwell on all its signage before being graphically integrated with the rest of Transport for London in 2005 with a new roundel and use of New Johnston typeface at all stations.
31/100: Bus stop flag
Bus stop flags, bearing the famous roundel logo and displaying bus route numbers, are an established part of London's street furniture. Organised queuing for buses was first introduced during WW1. In the 1920s London's biggest bus operator, the London General Omnibus Company (LGOC), began experimenting with the design of bus stop flags. A standard enamel sign with a curved top following the form of the roundel was introduced. The new roadside signs attempted to present a unified design in the visually busy streetscape. The flag has evolved into John Elson's 1990s designs, using solar power to light timetables.
32/100: Victoria Coach Station
Victoria Coach Station was designed by Wallis, Gilbert and Partners for London Coastal Coaches. It offered centralised, luxury accommodation, replacing a series of vehicle parks around central London. The building featured Art Deco styling well-suited to the mechanised age of motor travel. The artist, Grafton, designed this poster for the station's launch in 1932. London Transport took over Victoria Coach Station in 1988. Managed today by TfL, it is the main arrival and departure point in London for coaches travelling throughout the UK and Europe. Every year, the station is used by 14 million passengers, with over 240,000 coach departures.
33/100: Baby on board! badge
The first badges with the roundel and the words 'Baby on board!' were trialled in 2005, when they were given out at International Women's Day events. TfL went on to make the badges available to pregnant women using public transport and they have proved very popular ever since. Research showed that Londoners were often afraid to offer their seat in case they inadvertently offended women who were not pregnant. Having a Baby on board badge makes it easier for other passengers to identify mothers-to-be.The badges also empower pregnant women to ask for a seat when they need it.
34/100: The Tate Gallery by Tube poster
In 1986, Henry Fitzhugh, London Transport's head of publicity, commissioned artist David Booth to produce an artwork for a poster. Booth created a witty adaptation of Beck's Underground map using tubes of paint. At Pimlico, a paint tube stands in place of the Tate and the whole artwork plays on the idea of travelling by 'Tube'. Booth's poster has become one of London Underground's most popular publicity posters. It has been reprinted many times and sold all over the world.
The directional signage across all TfL networks is connected by a shared visual identity that encompasses the New Johnston typeface, familiar colours, symbols and durable materials. The first standardised sign manual was issued by London Transport in 1938. Directional signs inform and guide travellers through the network, helping them on their journeys. As designed objects encountered by millions every day, they are the epitome of subtle and effective design.
The iBus system tracks over 9,000 of London's buses using a combination of advanced GPS-based tracking technologies. The system triggers automatic audio announcements and visual displays inside each bus telling passengers where they are on the route. It also provides service control facilities, produces performance statistics and the payments to the bus operating companies. iBus calculates the arrival time for all buses at London's 19,000 stops. Passengers can see how long they have to wait by looking online, on the Countdown panels in bus shelters, or by using one of many TfL-powered smartphone apps.
37/100: Trafalgar Square
Foster + Partners's redesign of Trafalgar Square was completed in 2003, following consultations with 180 separate institutions and thousands of individuals. The most significant change was the closure of the north side of the square to traffic and the creation of a broad new terrace in front of the National Gallery. This links via a flight of steps into the main body of the square. The redesign also included a platform lift to the main square, improved paving, lighting and traffic signage.
38/100: First Underground logo
The 'big U, big D' Underground logo was added to stations on the District Railway and the three new Tube lines owned by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL) in 1908. The new brand was also added to the first pocket maps of the network issued the same year.
39/100: Green Park station entrance
Green Park station opened in 1933, replacing an earlier station on the site. Extensive modifications have been made since then, most recently in 2011 when the new southern entrance to Green Park station opened. The upgrade included a new canopy and staircase, an attractive ramped entrance with views of the park, and a beautiful artwork, called Sea Strata by John Maine, commissioned by Art on the Underground. Working with 150-million-year-old Portland stone, Maine created an intricate fossil-clad surface for the station's new Green Park side buildings, and fossil-inspired spiral designs in the paving for the street-level access to the Tube.
40/100: 55 Broadway
Frank Pick selected Charles Holden as architect for the Underground Group's new headquarters over St James's Park station. Holden's ingenious solution for an awkward site depended on a cruciform plan, allowing good lighting to all the offices, with minimum impact on surrounding buildings. Opened in 1929, the building was revolutionary, and won the London Architectural Medal. It was the tallest office building in London at the time. On the façade Holden included Modernist sculptures by Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore and Eric Gill. Epstein's Night was dramatic, but the nude figure in Day proved controversial and was subsequently altered.
41/100: Tube map cover series
Art on the Underground is London Underground's contemporary art programme. Since 2004, Art on the Underground has been commissioning leading artists to create unique artworks for the front cover of the pocket Tube map, with 23 editions to date. Each artist responds in different ways to the map's iconic design and the city it represents.
42/100: Oxford Circus 'scramble' crossing
Scramble crossings are pedestrian crossings, used in conjunction with traffic signals, where all traffic movement is stopped to allow pedestrians to cross in every direction at the same time. They are widely used in Japan and North America. The crossing at Oxford Circus was designed by Atkins on behalf of TfL, The Crown Estate, Westminster City Council and the New West End Company, and installed during 2009.
43/100: Arnos Grove extension
The Piccadilly line extension stations built between 1931 and 1933 are generally acknowledged as the architect Charles Holden's best work. The first five new stations north of Finsbury Park, including Arnos Grove, opened in September 1932. Holden's restrained Modernism, characterised by attention to detail and a commitment to total design, combined a unified look with subtle variety.
44/100: 1967 Tube stock
The Victoria line was the most advanced underground railway in the world when it opened in 1968, with computer-controlled trains and automatic ticket barriers. The unpainted silver finish and wrap-around windscreens of the trains gave London's new Tube a fashionable space age look that was part of the Design Research Unit's visual concept for the whole line.
45/100: Air vent grille, Manor House station
During the 1930s, decorative metalwork was incorporated into the design of the Piccadilly line extension to Cockfosters. Manor House, as well as Turnpike Lane and Wood Green, had ornate grilles installed over the ventilation ducts placed along the platform walls. The grilles were designed by Harold Stabler and unique to each station.
46/100: Leslie Green's tiles
From at least the 1860s onwards, glazed tiles have been chosen for Tube station interiors because they are durable and easy to clean. Leslie Green's 1906/7 stations feature plain white and green tiles and mouldings at street level. At platform level the station name and instructions such as 'Way Out' and 'To Trains' are also rendered in tile, alongside individual colour schemes in repeating geometric patterns right along the platform. At the surviving Leslie Green stations, the exterior, interior and platforms remain largely as designed, but with some sections refurbished.
47/100: Canary Wharf Crossrail station
Canary Wharf will be one of the largest stations on the new Crossrail line, linking east and southeast London with west London, Heathrow Airport and Berkshire. Foster + Partners were the principal architects for the seven-storey building, which is crowned with a roof of special plastic, aluminium and timber. Beneath the roof is an ornamental garden, and below that a shopping centre, both of which opened in May 2015. The station platforms open for business when Crossrail commences operations in late 2018.
48/100: Covent Garden station exterior
The station was designed by Leslie Green and opened in 1907. It retains much of its original character, and was upgraded in 2015 with new high-speed lifts. It primarily served the large fruit, flower and vegetable markets in Covent Garden. With the closure of the markets in the 1970s, the area slowly transformed into a busy and attractive shopping area, popular with tourists. London Transport Museum now occupies the former Flower Market building in the nearby piazza.
49/100: Pedestrian Countdown at Traffic Signals
In 2008, TfL developed the system of Pedestrian Countdown at Traffic Signals (PCaTS) in London, to improve pedestrian crossings. The signals allow people, particularly those with mobility issues, to cross knowing they have enough time - which reduces the number of road accidents. We considered 29 combinations of red and green men and countdown panel configurations. After studies of similar systems in Dublin, New York, San Francisco and Auckland, a London version was tested on eight crossings in 2011. Countdown timers have now been installed at 400 sites across the Capital, as pedestrian crossings at busy road crossings are modernised.
50/100: Bus destination blinds
Destinations and stopping points have been displayed on buses since 1829, when bus services first began. But as services developed and became more complex, roller blinds were adopted in the 1920s. In the 1930s they were silk-screen printed onto paper strips that were then pasted on to rolls of linen up to 10m (30ft) long. Modern blinds are still silk-screen printed, but applied straight on to rolls of man-made fabric, which can be much longer.
51/100: Bus priority lane
Bus-only lanes were introduced in London in 1968 to keep buses moving and reduce the delays caused by traffic congestion. The number of bus lanes has risen considerably since then. Now bus lanes are not just for buses - taxis, motorcycles and cycles can use many of them too.
52/100: East Finchley's The Archer
Eric Aumonier, who created The Archer, joined a family firm of architectural sculptors after finishing his studies at the Slade School of Art in the early 1920s. The commission for East Finchley station was one of three from London Transport, including representations of
the South Wind on the exterior of 55 Broadway, and a pie with a knife and fork over the canteen entrance at the Underground's Acton engineering works. A fourth commission at Archway station was interrupted by the outbreak of WW2, but
East Finchley was completed in 1940.
53/100: TfL Journey Planner
The Journey Planner in use today evolved from the first computerised database of travel routes across London, initially used only by London Transport staff operating the travel information service. They relayed travel advice and instructions to members of the public on the telephone. In July 2002, the online Journey Planner was launched by Transport for London. By the end of the year it was already being consulted by over a million users a month. A version for smartphones and tablets was launched in 2010.
54/100: Man Ray poster
This image is one of the most familiar in the London Transport Museum's collection. Two versions of the poster were printed using the same image, but with different wording. Designed to be displayed together, the one on the left says 'London Transport', the one on the right, 'Keeps London Going'. Produced by the famous Surrealist and Dadaist Man Ray during a brief residence in London, the posters feature the iconic roundel in the form of a planet. The image is a photogram, a picture produced with photographic materials but without a camera. Man Ray experimented with this 19th century technique by varying the exposure times given to different objects within a single photogram, and by moving the objects during light exposure. He then renamed the process a 'rayograph'.
55/100: Night Tube map
The launch of an all-night Friday and Saturday Tube service on five lines is expected in 2016. Designing a Night Tube map that clearly differentiates from the more complex day map was challenging. Both maps will be displayed together on station platforms, so great care has been taken to keep the scale and design values in sympathy, but the background colours and detailing as different as possible. Note the appearance of a new night owl symbol, inspired by the night owl logo first applied to London Transport marketing material in 1982. The new version also references New Johnston typography.
56/100: Underground in Bloom
Great pride has always been taken in the appearance of Tube stations, as well as the service provided to customers. On the open sections of the Tube, station garden competitions have run in one form or another since before WW1. In 2002, the competition was rebranded Underground in Bloom, with eligibility expanded to all stations, along with depots and service control centres. The number of stations competing across the network has risen steadily in the past decade, and there are now around 70 entrants across a variety of categories, including one for staff artists' works that depict the garden entries.
57/100: Station clock with roundels, Gants Hill
In the 1940s, several Tube stations opened on the eastern extension of the Central line from Liverpool Street. Four of them (Bethnal Green, Gants Hill, Redbridge and Wanstead) featured distinctive roundel clocks at platform level, made by the Magneta Time Company Ltd. On the clock face at Gants Hill there are 13 of the famous roundel logos. The hours are marked by 12 roundels and the final one forms the hour hand itself. Clocks with slightly different styling on the casing are also still in place at Bethnal Green, Redbridge and Wanstead stations.
58/100: Bus spider map
A spider map is a schematic diagram of bus services specific to a local area. They have been used by TfL since 2002. The maps are displayed at bus stops around the capital, conveying bus route information in a diagrammatic style similar to that of Harry Beck's Underground map. Routes are numbered on different coloured lines and angled to show some association with geography. Bus stops are indicated with letters on red graphic markers. The bus maps were designed for us by the T-Kartor Group, a cartographic design company.
59/100: Newbury Park bus station
Newbury Park bus station was designed by the architect Oliver Hill, one of his last commissions before retirement. Known as a designer of traditional country houses earlier in his career, he was converted to Modernism in the 1930s. His subsequent work typically employed dramatic curving lines, well represented in the Newbury Park design, which won a Festival of Britain Architectural Award in 1951. Newbury Park bus station is now a Grade II listed building.
60/100: Emirates Air Line
The Emirates Air Line cable car opened on Thursday 28 June 2012. It crosses the Thames from Greenwich Peninsula to Royal Docks and provides an interchange with the Jubilee line and Docklands Light Railway. With a journey time of around 10 minutes each way, passengers enjoy spectacular views of London. The cable car can carry up to 2,500 people an hour in each direction and at night the extended journey time offers a unique view across the capital.
61/100: Traffic signals system
David Mellor was an industrial designer who combined the skills of a craftsman and artist with those of a commercial entrepreneur. Best known for his classic stainless steel cutlery designs, he was also committed to improving the urban environment, including street lighting, bollards, litter bins and the traffic light or 'signal head' which he redesigned in the late 1960s. Although utilitarian, it was designed with a clean simplicity to fit into the urban landscape. Later models built on the modular format, allowing a range of traffic signal head configurations to be created and easily replaced at low cost.
62/100: New uniform
Staff working on London's transport network have always been identified by a uniform. It not only represents the organisation, but provides reassurance for the public of a safe and comfortable journey. In 2015 Transport for London launched a distinctive new uniform for
Underground and Overground station staff. Designed by HemingwayDesign, the modern uniforms prominently feature the roundel logo on pockets, jacket cuffs, zip pulls and embroidered on the back of garments. The new uniform was developed with staff input, and reflects London's transport heritage and diversity.
63/100: Routemaster window winder
Like so many aspects of London Transport vehicle design, the 1950s window winding handle and mechanism on the Routemaster were perfected over several generations of vehicle by the design teams at London Transport's Chiswick Works, improving with each iteration. The winder on the windows of the RF type (1950) and RT type (1939) are very similar and operate with the same mechanism.
64/100: Piccadilly Circus concourse
Piccadilly Circus opened in 1906 and has always been one of the busiest Tube stations. By the 1920s, the station was struggling with traffic, and it was extensively rebuilt with escalators and a new booking hall. The station was redesigned by architect Charles Holden, who created an attractive circular hall in 1928 that welcomed passengers. Using travertine marble cladding, bronze fittings, glass showcases and roof support columns with hanging lamps, its appearance was similar to an elegant shop, like the establishments found above ground on Regent Street.
65/100: Cycle Hire bikes
The Cycle Hire scheme was introduced in May 2010 and initially implemented in 400 locations, with 6,000 bikes. Today there are more than 11,500 bikes and over 760 docking stations covering over 100sq km (36sq miles), with further planned across the capital. The scheme is sponsored (by Santander in 2016) and was modelled on the Vélib public cycling network in Paris. More than 47 million journeys have been made on Cycle Hire bikes since the scheme was launched.
66/100: Earl's Court destination indicators
It is Transport for London policy to retain original features that can still be used in their original positions at Tube stations. At Earl's Court station the modern dot matrix destination indicators are supplemented in fine style by the illuminated 'train describer' display board, which has been in use since 1911.
67/100: Open data policy
Open data is data that is made freely available, to be used and republished by anyone without restrictions from copyright or other controls. In 2014, TfL began to release live transport information into the public domain. This was done to encourage the growth of digital transport products, which Londoners can use to help them on their journeys. Around 6,000 developers have registered to use the live data feeds. This has led to the production of hundreds of apps reaching millions of passengers.
68/100: Hans Schleger bus stop flag
In 1935, graphic designer Hans Schleger (also known as Zero) was commissioned to redesign the signs used to indicate bus, coach and tram stopping places. His simplified bullseye consisted of a plain bar and circle in silhouette form. Schleger's stop flags were introduced throughout London, providing the basis for bus stop flags today.
69/100: London Transport gold lettering
With the creation of London Transport in 1933, gold waterslide transfer lettering was applied to all London Transport buses from 1934 to the late 1960s, surviving on some types of bus until the early 1980s. All new single-deck buses introduced from 1968 and new double-decker buses from 1970 had either plain Johnston lettering or roundels of various types. The Johnston version, underlined and with larger letters at the beginning and end, followed the form of the 'GeneraL' a fleet name used on buses before the formation of London Transport. That design in turn had followed the form of the 1908 'UndergrounD' brand.
70/100: Stockwell bus garage
One of London Transport's most celebrated and radical designs is Stockwell bus garage. Designed by Adie, Button & Partners, it opened in 1952 to replace Norwood tram depot. At the time the arched reinforced concrete roof was the widest unsupported span in Europe. It is a dramatic piece of architecture, capable of housing 200 buses. It also housed everything the vehicles and drivers required on site, from facilities for inspections, repairs and fuelling to a canteen and staffroom. It has remained largely unchanged and is now a still-operational Grade II* listed building.
71/100: Night Bus map
In 2014, Transport for London designed a Night bus services map with a dark blue background to sit alongside the daytime bus map (which is white). Like the Night Tube map, the bus version has to convey the message of differing route and service standards as clearly as possible. The night map has been tested in a new material (polypropylene) to increase product life expectancy, reduce maintenance costs and improve customer presentation. The latest versions also feature the elegant redesigned night owl symbol.
72/100: Brecknell, Munro & Rogers ticket machines
Although their styling might suggest 1950s or 1960s manufacture, these ticket machines, produced by Brecknell, Munro & Rogers, were quietly futuristic. They first appeared in busy Tube stations as early as 1937. At that time, individual tickets were purchased from one point to another, many with different prices. These clearly labelled machines helped regular commuters buy tickets for commonly made journeys that cost a set amount - on the poster, it shows 4d. They were both functional and beautiful. They were still in use at some locations into the 1980s.
73/100: Q type bus
First introduced in 1935, the Q type bus was a revolutionary design, years ahead of its time. The engine is mounted under the floor behind the driver, which meant that it could be built without the usual bonnet at the front. This allowed graceful curves and a form that was not dictated by the mechanics of the vehicle.
74/100: Morden extension
Frank Pick commissioned architect Charles Holden to design eight new stations for the Northern line extension, southwest from Clapham to Morden. Holden designed adaptable frontages with three sections that could be flat, set back or bent to fit corner sites. The frontages gave each station a similar form, imparting a unified style that could be customised to each site. Work began on the stations in 1924, and they opened in 1926 to great acclaim. The architecture of the stations has changed little today.
75/100: Rainbow indicator boards
Rainbow indicator boards are located in most Tube stations, and are a simple and effective way of communicating the service status of Underground and Overground lines. The highly visible innovation was introduced in 2006 by Tim O'Toole, Managing Director of London Underground at the time. The initiative was accompanied by positive announcements such as, 'The Underground is running a good service on all lines'.
76/100: Service regulator dials at 55 Broadway
The service regulator dials installed in the reception area of 55 Broadway - the newly opened headquarters of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL) at the time - showed the frequency of trains on each of the six lines then running. Senior managers passing by could consequently tell if the trains were running on time. The dials are practical but stylish, and a similar style of indicator was installed at Piccadilly Circus. Although no longer functioning, the dials still give an audible 'thunk' every now and again.
77/100: Accessible bus network
Accessible low-floor buses were introduced experimentally in 1993 and came into service in 1994. They were designed to a specification drawn up by London Buses Ltd. In 2016, all 8,700 buses in Transport for London's modern fleet are low-floor and fitted with ramps, making them wheelchair accessible. Access for disabled people, the elderly and parents with young children is a key issue in public transport. As well as accessible low-floor buses, design improvements include high contrast handrails for people with visual impairments, and on-board audible and visual announcements (iBus) to assist passengers who have sight and hearing loss. The accessible bus network also includes bus stops. This means the kerb must be high enough for the wheelchair ramp to deploy, and for the step into the bus to be at a reasonable height. It also incorporates a protected 'clearway' that is free from any street furniture blocking access to the doors.
78/100: B type bus
The B type is remarkable for being the first reliable, mass-produced London bus. In 1908 the London General Omnibus Company (LGOC), the largest bus company in London at the time, merged with two of its leading rivals. Frank Searle, the LGOC's Chief Engineer, realised that London's traffic conditions required a vehicle of rugged design to withstand frequent stopping and starting. The first design was the X type, a 34-seat double-decker, introduced in 1909. Further developments resulted in the B type in 1910, built at the LGOC works in Walthamstow using mass production techniques. It was relatively quiet, reliable and easily maintained, and by 1913, some 2,500 had entered service.
Improving access is a key consideration for all new transport schemes. London already has the world's largest fleet of accessible buses, with some 8,700 vehicles. Among TfL's many responsibilities is Dial-a-Ride. Operating since the 1980s, it is a supplementary service to the mainstream network, providing door-to-door transport for people with mobility issues. The minibus vehicles are equipped to carry wheelchairs and are available by appointment. Dial-a-Ride has a fleet of 370 purpose-built vehicles that feature tip and fold seats to allow wheelchair users to manoeuvre around the vehicle more easily, and the buses provide greater flexibility for individual passengers' needs.
80/100: London Transport map series
In the 1950s and 1960s, a long-running and very elegant series of maps was produced for bus, Green Line, Underground and general London information. The simplicity and consistency of design for each mode was noteworthy and pleasing to the eye. Mapping content was also done to a very high (for the time) graphic standard.
81/100: Exhibition Road redevelopment
Exhibition Road is home to some of Britain's leading museums and institutions. For several years the Mayor of London, the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea, and Westminster City Council worked jointly on proposals to improve the environment of the area. In 2011 the RIBA award-winning Exhibition Road redevelopment was unveiled. Designed by architects Dixon Jones Ltd, the area was transformed from a space dominated by traffic with narrow, crowded pavements into a shared space where pedestrians and vehicles co-exist equally.
82/100: Roundel seating at Oakwood station
The 'mushroom shelter' at Oakwood station (named Enfield West from 1933 to 1946) was designed by Charles Holloway James, with Adams, Holden & Pearson as consulting architects. The shelter first appeared in 1933 at this station, and at Southgate and Turnpike Lane; also at Queensbury in 1935. Making subtle use of materials (concrete, timber and bronze) found within the station, the architecture is beautifully proportioned, with even the circumference of the shelter roof being picked out in a bronze strip within the terrazzo flooring and paving. The shelters, with their halo of lights, are stylish but practical, providing welcome cover for travellers.
83/100: The 'Sudbury Box'
Sudbury Town on the Piccadilly line was built as a prototype for a new generation of Underground surface stations. Designed by Charles Holden, the style drew on contemporary European work in urban transport. Holden dubbed it a 'brick box with a concrete lid', and the approach was repeated in many forms, including the striking drum shapes of Arnos Grove and Southgate. These stations have since been recognised as among the finest British commercial architecture of their time.
84/100: Step nosing
Steel nosing to treads on staircases was used in the 1880s as a way of reducing wear and tear in high traffic areas at stations. In the 1950s a roundel was incorporated into the design. The step nosing across London's Tube stations may go unnoticed by the millions of passengers who walk over it every day. However, with its embossed roundel, it is a design element that illustrates the great care and attention given to even the smallest detail.
85/100: Wrapper artwork
Wrapper is a permanent artwork by Jacqueline Poncelet, commissioned by Art on the Underground, that clads the building and perimeter wall next to the Edgware Road station on the Circle line. Created in vitreous enamel, Wrapper dresses the building in a grid of patterns which relate to different parts of the local area. The colours reflect those of the Tube map, hinting at the building's connection to it. Wrapper can be seen from many locations; from the Circle line platform, on the surrounding streets, and driving along the Marylebone Road. It is the largest vitreous enamel artwork in Europe.
86/100: Victoria line signalling box
The Design Research Unit (DRU), a consultancy practice formed by Milner Gray, Misha Black and others, was responsible for the aesthetic style of the Victoria line, which opened between 1968 and 1972. Even the signalling equipment was designed to form part of the coordinated environment. The 'harbour light' signal (to the right of the clock) was so named because the glass lenses are reminiscent of marine lanterns. Made from brushed aluminium, it is typical of the Underground's architectural style during the 1960s.
87/100: Platform tiles, Swiss Cottage station
Press-moulded tiles designed by Harold Stabler and made at Poole Pottery were used from 1938 to decorate platforms and concourses of new and refurbished stations, including Aldgate East, Bethnal Green, St John's Wood, St Paul's and Swiss Cottage. They represent the counties around London, plus symbols, buildings and historical figures associated with the city. There are 18 different designs, and Swiss Cottage has the whole set. Harold Stabler was closely associated with Frank Pick. As well as these tiles, he designed a company seal, a cap badge, bus radiator mascots and station platform ventilation grilles. He also designed many posters for London Transport and the Underground Group.
88/100: London County Council Bluebird tram
The prototype Bluebird tram was the London County Council Tramways (LCCT) answer to London United Tramways' luxurious Feltham tram. Like its inspiration, Bluebird had an all-steel body, air doors and brakes, and a high standard of interior comfort and finish. But when the LCC tram services were taken over by London Transport, no further examples were built. It became the last tram made for service in London. Ultimately, the design was no match for the perceived benefits of the more flexible trolleybus, which replaced trams in the 1950s.
89/100: Bus advertising panels
Panels advertising bus company names and stopping points, or commercial products such as Pears soap, were first seen in the 1860s, at a time when riding on the top of a bus was a precarious affair. Access was via rungs on the back of the vehicle, which remained in use until replaced by proper staircases in the 1870s. Advertising has always been an important source of revenue for London's bus companies. Enamel advertising plates covered most of the available space on the horse buses and early motorbuses, including the risers of the staircase on the back. Transparent adverts covered the narrow windows, and smaller bills were pasted inside.
90/100: Serif version of Johnston font
This font is a 'petit-serif' variation of Edward Johnston's alphabet. It was designed in the 1920s by Percy Delf Smith, a former pupil of Johnston. The typeface was created for use in the new London Transport headquarters building at 55 Broadway, and the architect Charles Holden contributed to its creation. Holden also used it in several of the new stations on the Piccadilly line, notably at Sudbury Town (1931) and Arnos Grove (1932).
91/100: Power poster
Edward McKnight Kauffer's poster, which features the massive Lots Road power station in the background, celebrates the advanced technology of the Tube. The bold and striking image not only emphasises the technological progression of the time, it also illustrates the Underground's confidence in modern design as a means of communication. The geometric design suggests the influence of Futurism and the Art Deco style, and shows how Kauffer successfully introduced new styles of art to popular culture.
92/100: Up Down ramp
On a single journey passengers might step up to get off a train at one station, and step down to get off at another. Previously, ramps enabled wheelchair users to board only trains that were higher than the platform edge. The 'Up Down Ramp' can be used in either situation, increasing the number of stations that are accessible to wheelchair users. Parked on the platform, the ramp goes unnoticed by most of our customers, but it represents the continuing work being done to make the system accessible to as many passengers as possible.
93/100: Wilfred the Rabbit
Animal mascots for motor vehicles became popular in the 1920s. The London General Omnibus Company (LGOC) took up the idea and commissioned a rabbit mascot for use on the radiator caps to promote their country bus services. Designed by the silversmith Harold Stabler and made in cast aluminium by the company Coan, it was originally intended to be 10cm (4in) high, but was increased to 20cm (8in) to have more impact. The pottery company Carter, Stabler & Adams produced presentation ceramic versions of the rabbit in 1922, to give to LGOC directors and other individuals. The mascot acquired its nickname because of a resemblance to the long-eared rabbit called Wilfred who starred in the popular post-war Daily Mirror strip cartoon, 'Pip, Squeak and Wilfred'.
94/100: Metropolitan Railway coat of arms
The Metropolitan Railway's coat of arms bears the shield of the City of London (top left) and the counties it served - Middlesex (top right), Buckinghamshire (bottom left) and Hertfordshire (bottom right). The clenched fist with sparks at the top celebrates the power and capability of electric traction. The symbolic coats of arms of the City of London's guilds and livery companies set a standard for the way in which many of London's companies, including its transport operators, chose to present their corporate identity.
95/100: Cut Travelling Time poster
Tom Eckersley was trained at Salford College of Art and, with fellow student Eric Lombers, formed an artistic partnership that until 1939 produced innovative posters for many clients, such as this Cut Travelling Time poster for London Transport. Eckersley later became Head of Graphic Design at the prestigious London College of Printing, and he, together with Abram Games, was at the forefront of poster design in the period between 1950 and 1975. Both designers were frequently commissioned by London Transport.
96/100: Lift grilles by Leslie Green
The stations designed by Leslie Green for the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL) featured a number of Art Nouveau flourishes. This influence was evident in the ornamental use of decorative wrought iron on the lift shaft ventilation grilles. Lift shafts in the new stations had ventilation holes at the top and bottom of the lift doors. Instead of concealing them, Green applied curving, plant-like forms typical of the Art Nouveau style to the grilles, which also feature the lift car number.
97/100: Millbank Millennium Pier
Millbank Millennium Pier was opened in 2003, the last of a group of five new piers on the Thames funded by the Millennium Commission. Designed by Marks Barfield Architects, with a lighting installation by artist Angela Bulloch, the pier is served by the river route RB2, linking the Tate Britain and Tate Modern art galleries.
98/100: West Acton station
Designed by the Great Western Railway architect Brian Lewis in the late 1930s, West Acton was intended to be the model that other rebuilt Central line stations would follow, but the programme was interrupted by the onset of the Second World War.
99/100: Windrush Square, Brixton
TfL's Urban Design team works with the Greater London Authority and London boroughs to create attractive and well-connected streets and places. Windrush Square in Brixton, in the London Borough of Lambeth, opened in February 2010. It was designed by the landscape architects GROSS MAX to reorganise three pre-existing open spaces - Tate Gardens, St Matthew's Gardens and the original grassy Windrush Square - into one pedestrianised park and square. The £8.7m project was part of TfL's broader Brixton Town Centre improvement scheme, completed later in 2010. Windrush Square has changed a once over-congested interchange space into an asset that can be used by the whole community.
100/100: Chiswick Bridge
The A316 road is a principal route from London to southwest England, built between the First and Second World Wars to relieve pressure on the narrow and overcrowded Hammersmith and Richmond bridges and connecting road networks. Chiswick Bridge is one of the two bridges (the other is Twickenham) over the River Thames on the relief road. Constructed mainly of concrete with Portland stone facing, the bridge was designed by the architect Sir Herbert Baker and the Middlesex County Engineer Alfred Dryland. This elegant Grade II listed structure was strengthened and refurbished in 2015, and still carries many thousands of vehicles every day. It is also a key vantage point for the annual Boat Race between the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, a fixture since 1829.